MongoDB vs. MySQL: A Detailed Comparison

MongoDB vs MySQL

As businesses face exponential growth in data, investing in the right database becomes crucial. While several database providers claim to meet modern data challenges, choosing the one that fulfills your specific business requirements is important.

MongoDB and MySQL are two popular management systems businesses prefer when dealing with large volumes of data. However, each database has pros and cons and is suitable for a particular use case. Before deciding, you must evaluate them on several factors, such as security, flexibility, scalability, and, most importantly, the supported use cases.

To help you make an informed decision, we have provided an in-depth comparison of MongoDB vs. MySQL.

What is MongoDB?

MongoDB is a free, open-source NoSQL database that enables users to store vast amounts of unstructured data. Unlike traditional databases that use rows and columns, MongoDB utilizes collections and documents to store data.

A collection is a group of documents containing key-value pairs, also known as the basic data unit. 

Documents in MongoDB have a JSON-like format and can vary in size and content. Additionally, each document has a unique ID as the primary key.

MongoDB’s schema-less nature makes it incredibly flexible. It allows users to add fields on the fly without adhering to strict data structures.

MongoDB uses MongoDB Query Language (MQL), a powerful and flexible query language that supports CRUD operations and enables users to create, read, update, and delete data. 

It also makes performing data aggregation, geographical queries, and text searches easy. Queries can be constructed using JSON-linked operators, Boolean AND, and OR queries.

MongoDB Features

Here are some noteworthy features of MongoDB worth exploring:

  • Replication: MongoDB allows you to create multiple copies of the same data and distribute them across different servers.
  • Ad-hoc queries: With MongoDB, you can perform ad-hoc queries, range queries, regular expressions (Regex), and field searches. Additionally, you can specify text fields and incorporate JavaScript functions in your queries.
  • Sharding: Large datasets can be split into smaller sets spread across multiple MongoDB instances, improving performance.
  • Load balancing: MongoDB supports concurrency control to handle multiple client requests to several servers simultaneously.
  • Capped Collections: MongoDB facilitates capped collections that manage data insertion orders.
  • Horizontal Scaling: If you need to increase MongoDB’s capacity, add more servers.

What is MySQL?

MySQL is a widely used open-source relational database management system that was introduced by Oracle. It has gained popularity in the market and is currently the world’s second most popular database management system, with many well-known brands, such as and Netflix, using it. 

Developers prefer working with MySQL when creating WordPress websites due to its ease of use and flexibility.

MySQL’s data is stored in a relational format, which makes it easier to analyze and query. This database utilizes a client-server model, which means that when a user wants to access information, they can send a request to the server using SQL commands. 

Users can easily modify data with commands such as “SELECT,” “UPDATE,” “INSERT,” and “DELETE.”

One of the main reasons developers prefer MySQL is its low ownership cost. It also comes with various functionalities, such as MYSQL Work Bench, that allow users to perform server administration, conduct data migrations, perform data modeling, and manage data effectively. 

Additionally, the database is highly secure and robust, providing a safe and reliable option for storing data.

MySQL Features

Below are some noteworthy features of MySQL:

  • Replication and clustering: MySQL supports replication and clustering through multiple synchronization methods, which improves program execution efficiency.
  • Security: MySQL provides various security features, such as Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), password protection, authentication plugins, and data masking.
  • Performance Schema: This MySQL feature allows users to check the execution of a server at runtime.
  • Online Schema: MySQL provides a variety of online schemas that help users fulfill their storage capacity requirements and provide increased functionality.
  • Backup: MySQL allows users to back up their data in several ways, including full, incremental, and logical versus physical backup.

Now that we have covered both databases’ main functionalities let’s compare and contrast their capabilities and functionalities.

MongoDB vs. MySQL: Differences

Now that we have established the basics of MongoDB and MySQL let’s examine their differences. 

Below is a comparative table highlighting the differences between the various features of SQL and MongoDB.

Feature MySQL MongoDB
License Open-source   Open-source  
Data Storage  Tables and rows JSON-like documents  
Query Language   SQL    MongoDB Query Language 
Schema    Predefined Schema  Flexible Schema
Data Flexibility Limited Highly flexible                     
Scalability Vertical  Horizontal 
Referential Integrity  Enforced   Not enforced 
Popularity Widely used in traditional systems Popular in web and mobile systems
Use Cases   Traditional applications Web and mobile applications   

Which one should you choose?

This section will thoroughly examine a range of essential factors to consider when deciding between MongoDB and MySQL. 

We’ll consider aspects such as license, data storage, query language, scalability, security, backup, and performance monitoring,  providing a comprehensive analysis to help you make an informed choice for your specific requirements.


  • MySQL: Open-source
  • MongoDB: Open-source

Data Storage:

  • MySQL: Relational format for easier analysis and querying
  • MongoDB: NoSQL with flexible, JSON-like document storage

Query Language:

  • MySQL: Uses SQL commands for data manipulation
  • MongoDB: Utilizes MongoDB Query Language (MQL) for CRUD operations and flexible queries


  • MySQL: Supports replication and clustering for improved efficiency
  • MongoDB: Allows sharding and horizontal scaling to handle large datasets


  • MySQL: Provides SSL, password protection, authentication plugins, and data masking
  • MongoDB: Offers security features and supports secure data storage


  • MySQL: Supports full and incremental backup, logical versus physical backup
  • MongoDB: Allows various backup methods for data safety

Performance Monitoring:

  • MySQL: Performance Schema for real-time server execution monitoring
  • MongoDB: Offers tools for monitoring and optimizing database performance


In conclusion, the MongoDB vs MySQL debate reveals each database system’s advantages and considerations. 

Whether you are considering a transition from MySQL to MongoDB or exploring a hybrid deployment approach, it’s essential to carefully evaluate factors such as scalability, performance, flexibility, and security. 

With the availability of resources like migration guides and tools such as MongoDB’s Relational Migrator, users can make informed decisions and strategically leverage the strengths of each database system to meet their specific requirements. 

We encourage you to thoroughly explore the capabilities of both MongoDB and MySQL to make an informed decision that aligns with your current and future database needs. 

Understanding each system’s strengths and considerations will empower users to harness the full potential of their chosen database, whether it’s MongoDB’s flexibility or MySQL’s reliability in traditional relational data management. 

With careful consideration and exploration, you can confidently navigate the landscape of database systems to support your unique business or project requirements.

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